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Chicago/Turabian Citation Guide

Chicago/Turabian Citation Overview

Chicago and Turabian Style are editorial styles, or rules that a publisher uses to ensure consistent presentation of written material. Citing your sources in Chicago and Turabian style gives credit to the works of others and helps your readers go back and find the information you present. Chicago Style follows the 16th Edition of the Chicago Manual of Style. Turabian Style follows Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations.

  • Basic Chicago/Turabian components: Author. Title. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. 
  • Chicago/Turabian is also known as documentary note, or humanities style, frequently used in history, philosophy, business, communications, and the arts.
  • The key attribute of Chicago and Turabian Style is numbered in-text citations. Footnotes correspond to superscript numbers and give citation information at the bottom of the page or end of text.

Getting Started

  1. Keep track of publication info as you read.
  2. Determine specifically what types of sources you have. Online or print articles? From a library database? Books with one author or more, or none? etc.
  3. Look up the format for those types of sources in your manual or web resource, using table of contents, index, or search tools.
  4. Follow the instructions precisely, paying close attention to punctuation and italicization. 

For more information on citation styles, see the Citing Sources tab on the Writing Center's homepage. You can also check out the Purdue OWL Chicago Style Guide for additional information.

Chicago/Turabian FAQ

Does the number for a foot- or endnote go outside the punctuation mark?

Yes, place notations for foot- and endnotes at the end of your sentence, outside of the ending punctuation mark.

How does one cite books without authors in the bibliography?


Do I need to use a new footnote every time I refer to the same source using Turabian style?

Yes. A footnote must be included on the same page with its note number. However, after giving the first full citation, subsequent citations may be shortened.

How do you footnote an interview?

(Indent) Interviews with first name last name, name of company or affiliation, city, state, day month year.

Do footnotes go on a separate page?

No, footnotes should be on the same page as the text to which they are attached and should be located at the bottom.

Does one use "Ibid" for second footnotes?

Yes, if the second reference immediately follows the first (not interrupted by another reference) and the second reference refers to the same book by the same author.

Setting up your paper in Chicago/Turabian Format

Inserting a Footnote in Chicago/Turabian Style

Citation Style FAQ

Why Cite Sources?

In academic research, citing sources distinguishes between your original work and the ideas of others. It also makes you a more credible author by supporting your claims with valid evidence and well-researched information. Original ideas are considered intellectual property and require giving credit by law. 

Citation styles and writing conventions are standard methods for documenting your sources. Citations help you and your readers find the same information you are citing to refer back to the source of information.

Use standard citations when you refer to the work of others in the body of your paper with in-text citations when using direct quotes and paraphrasing information. Then, compile full citations for works consulted or referenced in a reference list at the end of your paper. 

Citations also help you avoid plagiarism, which is the misuse of words, media, and ideas that are not your own. Examples of plagiarism include: 

  • Outright copying or paraphrasing without attribution
  • Misquoting
  • Not documenting the source of webpages, images, interviews, etc