The suggestions on quoting and the sentence templates below are adapted from They Say/I Say: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing by Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein. Graff and Birkenstein encourage students to use their templates (you do not have to quote or cite They Say/I Say when using them). The concept of They Say/I Say is that a writer needs to put their ownopinions (I Say) in context with what others have written on this topic (They Say).
PRO TIP 1: Watch out for “Hit-and-Run” quoting. This is a term for dropping a quote into the paper without giving any context or explaining the quote to your reader. It is very disorienting, and should be avoided.
PRO TIP 2: Always Use the Quote Sandwich. To effectively incorporate a quote, there are three steps: introduce the quote (who said it?), insert the quote (what did they say?), and then explain the quote (what does it mean and how does it relate to your argument?)
Introducing “standard views”
Showing who is saying what
Introducing something implied or assumed
Disagreeing, with reasons
Establishing why your claims matter
Making concessions while still standing your ground
Writing in the sciences